La haute représentante Federica Mogherini : le SPV pourrait être mis en place « dans les prochaines semaines »

A l’issue de la réunion du Conseil des affaires étrangères le lundi 10 décembre à Bruxelles, la haute représentante de l’Union Européenne pour les affaires étrangères et la politique de sécurité Federica Mogherini a renouvelé le soutien de l’Union à l’accord de Vienne malgré le retrait américain, rappelant que « l’Iran a tenu tous ses engagements nucléaires, comme l’AIEA [Agence Internationale de l’Energie Atomique] l’a affirmé à nouveau dans son 13e rapport qui vient d’être publié ».

Mme Mogherini a rappelé que l’Union Européenne tenait elle aussi à ce que le peuple iranien puisse continuer à bénéficier de la levée des sanctions même après le retrait américain. Elle a mis l’accent sur le SPV, mécanisme de troc destiné à protéger des sanctions américaines le commerce européen avec l’Iran : « Les ministres [des affaires étrangères] des E3 [France, Allemagne, Royaume-Uni] ont rendu compte de l’état des travaux s’agissant de la mise en place du Special Purpose Vehicle. Nous avons soutenu le travail qu’ils ont mené en lien avec les ministres des finances de leur pays. Il faut s’attendre à ce que cet instrument soit mis en place dans les prochaines semaines, c’est-à-dire avant la fin de l’année, afin de protéger et de promouvoir le commerce légitime avec l’Iran ».

Evoquant plus largement les relations de l’Union avec l’Iran, elle a déclaré : « Notre soutien résolu à la mise en œuvre complète du JCPOA ne signifie pas que nous fermons les yeux sur d’autres problèmes, bien au contraire. Cela ne nous empêche pas d’exprimer notre plein soutien aux Etats membres de l’Union Européenne qui ont subi les activités illicites de certains milieux iraniens, comme la France et le Danemark  »

La cheffe de la diplomatie européenne a également insisté sur le fait que le JCPOA était « la base d’un dialogue » sur « les questions régionales, et en premier lieu sur le Yémen, sur lequel nous avons vu récemment des avancées positives […] L’Iran s’est servi de son influence sur les Houthis afin d’enclencher les discussions en Suède, sous les auspices des Nations Unies – chose sur laquelle nous avions insisté et que nous avons soutenue. Nous pensons que, sur la base d’une mise en œuvre complète et durable du JCPOA, et à travers le dialogue, nous pourrons continuer de régler d’autres problèmes qui sont très importants pour nous, y compris les missiles balistiques, y compris la Syrie, y compris d’autres problèmes qui nous importent et sur lesquels nous discutons déjà avec l’Iran ».

Ci-dessous l’intervention complète de Mme Mogherini :

Q. What was the discussion on Iran ? Did it move the ball in any direction on future action ? Will there be conclusions in January ?

There was a consensus among the Member States on the need to keep our overall policy with Iran, starting from the strong interest we all have in keeping in place the JCPOA [Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action – the Iran nuclear deal].

Iran has been compliant with all its nuclear commitments, as the IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency] has told us again in the 13th report they have issued.

I have met recently both Minister [for Foreign Affairs of Iran, Mohammad Javad] Zarif and Vice-President [of Iran, Ali Akbar] Salehi and conveyed to them the expectation for Iran to continue its full compliance with the agreement [JCPOA], because of security interests, because of nuclear nonproliferation need in the region. The same also goes for our commitment to make sure that the Iranian people benefit from the lifting of sanctions, even after the US decision to re-impose some of these sanctions.

In particular on this point, the E3 [France, Germany, United Kingdom] Ministers debriefed on the state of play of the establishment of the Special Purpose Vehicle. We supported the work they are doing, together with the Finance Ministers of their countries. I would expect this instrument to be established in the coming weeks, so before the end of the year, as a way to protect and promote legitimate business with Iran.

But this is not the only issue we discussed. Our strong support for the full implementation of the JCPOA does not mean that we turn a blind eye on other issues, on the contrary. It is not an impediment for us to express our full support and solidarity to the Member States of the European Union that have seen illicit activities from some sectors in Iran, as it was the case in France and Denmark. This support has been reiterated and work is ongoing as a response.

Most importantly, the full implementation of the JCPOA is also the basis for our regional dialogue with Iran. We have a high level political dialogue, and today we are holding another round of European Union Dialogue - with Iran and with the E4 [France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom] - on regional issues, starting from Yemen on which we have seen some recent positive developments. They have been endorsed by the Iranian Foreign Ministry for the first time ever, expressing support in this direct manner to the work of the United Nations Special Envoy [for Yemen, Martin Griffiths].

This is the result of the dialogue we have put in place with Iran on regional issues, and Iran has used its influence on the Houthis to start discussions in Sweden, under the UN auspices - something we have very much insisted on and supported. We believe that, on the basis of the full and continued implementation of the JCPOA, through dialogue, we could continue to address other issues that are of serious concern for us, including the ballistic missiles, including Syria, including other issues that we want and we are already discussing with Iran.

The full implementation of the JCPOA is not the only thing that is on the table. We continue to invest also in our dialogue to try to solve, or at least move in a positive direction, issues of regional concern that for us are extremely serious.

Q. On Iran, you said you expect the SPV [Special Purpose Vehicle] to be announced in the next few weeks. How is it going to be arranged, where will it be hosted, how will the ownership be structured ? Then, the Dutch Foreign Minister [Stef Blok] tweeted that “the EU decided to further develop a blueprint for an EU global human rights sanctions regime.” Can you tell us a bit about how the discussion went today and what happens next on that ?

I will not share details of the work that is ongoing on the Special Purpose Vehicle. It will be for the E3 [France, Germany, United Kingdom] to announce it at the proper time ; they are leading on this. But obviously it will be something on which we are sharing information, not only with our Member States but also looking forward to open it up to third countries that might use it in the future.
Work is advancing well, and I would like to thank both the Foreign Ministers of the E3 countries but also the Finance Ministers and the Heads of State or Government of the E3, because of their constant work and determination to bring this work to a positive end.

When it comes to the Dutch proposal to establish this mechanism, it was raised by the Foreign Minister [of the Netherlands, Stef Blok] today. There was overall a positive reaction ; now additional reflection and work at experts level is needed, especially to address the issue of possible overlap with existing regimes that are already in place.

The work will take place at a technical level to see whether this proposal is feasible, if it fits properly with our overall sanction regime system. As you know, we have several frameworks for introducing sanctions, we have to make sure that they do not overlap and they do not contradict each other.
In any case, the political decision for introducing sanctions is always taken at political level by unanimity, and this will not change whatever system we have in place.

La conférence de presse complète.

Dernière modification : 07/01/2020

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